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Analysis of Cooling Tower Performance

A Comprehensive Approach to the Analysis of Cooling Tower Performance

The generally accepted concept of cooling tower performance was developed by Merkel in 1925. The Merkel Equation combines the sensible and latent heat transfer into an overall process based on enthalpy potential as the driving force.


The Application of Cooling Towers for Free Cooling

Application of Cooling Towers for Free Cooling

The use of Marley towers in free cooling applications extends back at least 30 years, during which time Marley-manufactured crossflow, counterflow, induced draft, and forced draft towers were so applied. 


ASHRAE Guideline

ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000 Legionellosis

Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems


Cooling Tower Energy and Its Management

Cooling Tower Energy and Its Management

Because of the fuel shortages which began to manifest themselves in the early 1970s, the cost of energy began its asymptotic rise.  Current general awareness of the energy problem has made the quest for improved energy efficiency seem to be an effort that is in its infancy. 


Cooling Tower Performance Basic Theory and Practice

Cooling Tower Performance Basic Theory and Practice

A cooling tower is a specialized heat exchanger in which two fluids (air and water) are brought into direct contact with each other to affect the transfer of heat.


Cooling Towers and Salt Water

Cooling Towers and Salt Water

For cooling tower service, any circulating water with more than 750 parts per million chloride expressed as NaCl is generally considered as salt water. However, the effects of chlorides will be much less severe at 750 ppm than they will at higher concentrations.


Corrosion Protection for Cooling Towers

Corrosion Protection for Cooling Towers

The forces of corrosion (as the term is being used in this paper) are those elements or compounds whose natural tendency is to chemically or electrolytically react with a metal, given the opportunity and a proper set of circumstances. 


CTI TP93-01

CTI TP93-01

Plume abatement and water conservation with the wet/dry cooling tower


CTI TP98-08

CTI TP98-08

Cooling Tower Plume Abatement at Chicago’s O’Hare Airport


External Influences on Cooling Tower Performance

External Influences on Cooling Tower Performance

A cooling tower reacts much like a human being to its air supply. If it is caused to reinhale its own exhaust, it begins to smother. If that air supply is restricted, it begins to choke. 


RSES Journal 4-03

How to Keep Cooling Towers Running Strong

Part one of a guide to cooling tower maintenance, focuses on the mechanical aspects of cooling towers. Written by Ken Mortensen, SPX Cooling Technologies. RSES Journal, April 2003.


RSES Journal 5-03

How to Manage Cooling Tower Water Quality

Part two of a series on cooling towers, reviews the importance of water management, treatment and system monitoring for peak performance. Written by Ken Mortensen, SPX Cooling Technologies. RSES Journal, May 2003.


Glossary of Cooling Tower Terms

International Glossary of Cooling Tower Terms

International glossary and cross section of cooling tower terms in five languages. English, Chinese, French, German, and Spanish


Operating Cooling Towers in Freezing Weather

Operating Cooling Towers in Freezing Weather

A properly designed cooling tower promotes the maximum possible contact between air and water—and does so for the maximum possible time period. This effort on the part of the designer results in an efficiency which, although greatly appreciated in the summertime, has the capability to produce performance-degrading ice formations during winter operation.


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PowerGen 2006 Dry Cooling Presentation

Air Cooled Condensers: Application and Innovative Designs for Today’s Power Plants. Presentation by William Wurtz and Philippe Nagel at the 2006 PowerGen International conference in Orlando, Florida. William Wurtz is Vice President, General Manager of Dry Cooling Americas and Philippe Nagel is Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Global Dry Cooling.


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PowerGen Europe 2006 Dry Cooling Presentation

Dry Cooling for Power Plants–An Innovative Modularization Concept. Presentation by Philippe Nagel and William Wurtz at the 2006 PowerGen Europw conference in Cologne, Germany. Philippe Nagel is Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Global Dry Cooling and William Wurtz is Vice President, General Manager of Dry Cooling Americas.


Purposes and Types of Fill

Purposes and Types of Fill

The relationship between water surface exposure and heat transfer rate is intrinsic to all types of towers, regardless of the type of water distribution system utilized. The more water surface exposed to given flow of air, the greater will be the rate of heat transfer.


Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Cooling Towers

Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Cooling Towers

Water cooling towers expose materials to a uniquely difficult environment where corrosion poses exceptional challenges. Every cooling tower must endure the combined corrosive effects of uncertain water chemistry, high temperatures, constant saturation and continuous natural aeration. In addition, many towers must also contend with potentially harmful agents in their circulating water as well as a variety of airborne pollutants such as sulfur oxides and acid rain.


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Service Information - 300 Series Stainless Steel

Stainless steel has found widespread use in virtually all types of wet cooling equipment due to its excellent mechanical properties combined with its superb corrosion resistance.


Service Information - Disposal of Treated Wood

Service Information - Disposal of Treated Wood

The disposal of waste wood from new tower construction, tower reconstruction or demolition may be a regulated activity, depending on the nature of the wood involved and the circumstances of disposal.


Service Information - A Turn For The Better

Service Information - Drift Eliminators (A Turn For The Better)

In a crossflow cooling tower, air enters the tower horizontally and must turn to the vertical before it can exit through the fan stack. Some drift eliminator manufacturers overlook this fact and do not include turning vanes on their cellular drift eliminators.


Service Information - Fiberglass Maintenance Platform and Walkway

Service Information - Fiberglass Maintenance Platform and Walkway

For permanent equipment access walkways or temporary work platforms, fiberglass grating assures premium performance.


Service Information - Health Alert

Service Information - Health Alert

Maintenance procedures that prevent amplification and dissemination of Legionella and other airborne bacteria should be formulated and implemented BEFORE systems are operated and continued regularly thereafter to avoid the risk of sickness or death.


Service Information - Marley Geareducer Savings

Service Information - Marley Geareducer Savings

Have you considered the cost of owning a cooling tower with belt drive—the total cost? Although belt drive systems are inexpensive to manufacture, they’re less efficient and require a lot of maintenance.


Service Information - Marley Seamless Basin Liner

Service Information - Marley Seamless Basin Liner

An excellent way to increase the longevity of the tower and eliminate leaks is to apply a one-piece liquid polyurethane sealant liner. It’s been shown that the application of a Marley seamless liner to your tower’s cold water basin can increase its useful life.


The Marley Difference - Construction Safety

The Marley Difference - Construction Safety

The erection of a cooling tower presents a number of hazards to workers, particularly exposure to falls from elevations. The erection of the tower should be entrusted only to those experienced in cooling tower construction who know how to plan and manage the work to reduce potential hazards.


The Marley Difference - Counterflow Performance

The Marley Difference - Counterflow Performance

Experience has shown that cookbook combinations of laboratory component data do not yield expected results in full scale performance. In order to develop valid cooling tower performance prediction, experience in field testing a variety of tower configurations is essential.


The Marley Difference - Crossflow Performance

The Marley Difference - Crossflow Performance

All components used in Marley crossflow cooling towers have been rigorously tested at SPX’s industry leading Research and Development Center as a system, in the configurations in which they are actually used.


The Marley Difference - Fan Cylinders

The Marley Difference - Fan Cylinders

The fan cylinder does far more than protect operating personnel from a rotating fan. It is a vital link in the chain of critical components that contribute to the overall efficiency of the cooling tower. When correctly designed, manufactured and applied, it assures that the fan will be capable of moving the maximum amount of air through the tower at the minimum required horsepower. 


The Marley Difference - Fiberglass Structure

The Marley Difference - Fiberglass Structure

Marley braced-frame pultruded fiberglass structures use 1/2” thick fiberglass pultruded side straps in the diagonal connection design.


The Marley Difference - Geareducer Drive

The Marley Difference - Geareducer Drive

Marley Geareducers have been manufactured in a variety of sizes and load ratings appropriate for cooling tower applications since the 1930s. We began doing so because geared speed reducers suitable for cooling tower service were not commercially available. Since that time, we have produced well over 100,000 units, and have established an unparalleled record of performance reliability.


The Marley Difference - Geareducer Sound Levels

The Marley Difference - Geareducer Sound Levels

SPX Cooling Technologies is the only major manufacturer whose speed reducer is designed uniquely for cooling tower duty. 


The Marley Difference - Lumber

The Marley Difference - Lumber

As lumber goes through cycles of alternate wetting and drying, the wood swells and shrinks twice as much along each growth ring as it does across growth rings. Internal stresses build up, making the board warp and twist. This problem becomes severe in boards containing heart centers. 


The Marley Difference - Pressure Treatment

The Marley Difference - Pressure Treatment

Lumber used in cooling tower construction must be treated with a reliable preservative compound to prevent decay. The industry’s current preferred treating chemical is Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA), a waterborne formulation which prevents biological attack by fungi or other microbes. Other preservatives are also available.


The Marley Difference - Redwood Lumber Grades

The Marley Difference - Redwood Lumber Grades

While both appearance and structural grades of redwood lumber are defined by appearance or visual characteristics, they have very different applications. For cooling towers and other structural applications, grading rules for structural grades of redwood establish requirements for strength characteristics such as slope of grain, knot size and frequency, and rate of growth.


The Marley Difference - Single-Source Construction

The Marley Difference - Single-Source Construction

Some cooling tower companies trust the erection of towers to unqualified and inexperienced subcontractors. Usually these companies are jobbers selling a conglomeration of components from various sources. This means their erection crews and subcontractors are installing unfamiliar products every time they build a tower. 


The Marley Difference - Structural Connections

The Marley Difference - Structural Connections - Shear Plates

Shear plates increase the load-bearing capability of joints in wood structures by increasing the bearing area. In addition, properly designed shear plates provide joint stability even if the bolted connection becomes loose because of wood shrinkage or minor movement between the members making up the joint.


The Marley Difference - Structural Connections

The Marley Difference - Structural Connections - Splices

Cooling towers are typically of a size which necessitates splicing many of the structural members. Inattention to an appropriate design standard, and failure to exercise a consistent structural philosophy, can produce splices that will become failure points in the future.


The Marley Difference - SystemConnect Inlet

The Marley Difference - SystemConnect Inlet

Want better choices in layout and piping connections for your cooling tower? The Marley SystemConnect Inlet system gives you more choices to make your layout of the NC Class cooling tower both expedient and economical.


The Marley Difference - Wood Design Standards

The Marley Difference - Wood Design Standards

The basic design of timber structures is governed by the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS), published by the American Forest and Paper Association. Cooling towers, however, are subjected to a uniquely harsh operating environment, as well as dynamic forces that dictate structural concerns somewhat beyond accepted norms.


The Use of Cooling Towers for Salt Water Heat Rejection

The Use of Cooling Towers for Salt Water Heat Rejection

The types of heat rejection systems for industrial plants are once through cooling, cooling ponds, lakes and canals, evaporative cooling towers, and dry cooling towers. This paper addresses the issues affecting the choice of once through cooling vs. evaporative cooling towers in salt water environments.


White Rust and Galvanized Cooling Towers

White Rust and Galvanized Cooling Towers

Factory assembled cooling towers have been manufactured from “heavy mill galvanized” (HMG) steel for many years. HMG steel is continuously hot dip coated with protective zinc at the steel processing mill. The steel is treated subsequent to coating with a chromate rinse to initially passivate the zinc surface, providing for protection during storage, fabrication and initial operation from “wet storage stain”. 


White Rust and Water Treatment

White Rust and Water Treatment

The best cure for white rust is an ounce of prevention when you begin operating your tower. Consult with your water treatment specialist and ask about his program for initial system operation and passivation of your galvanized steel cooling tower. We encourage early operation with near neutral pH water and use of only reasonable levels of film-forming inhibitors. 


 
 
 
 

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